Phytoplankton, tiny single-celled algae, anchor marine food webs throughout Earth's oceans. , Links have been found between temperature and spring bloom patterns.  This scenario has been observed in Rhode Island, as well as Massachusetts and Cape Cod Bay. In spring and summer, phytoplankton bloom at high latitudes and decline in subtropical latitudes. The mechanisms that trigger blooms have been studied for decades, but are still keenly debated, due in part to a lack of data on phytoplankton stocks in winter and early spring. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Phytoplankton spring bloom initiation: The impact of atmospheric forcing and light in the temperate North Atlantic Ocean. Mixing of the water column, rather than stratification. Succession occurs because different species have optimal nutrient uptake at different ambient concentrations and reach their growth peaks at different times. Consequently, spring bloom patterns are likely sensitive to global climate change. stock) that typically occurs in the early spring and lasts until late spring or early summer? The phytoplankton blooms of the North Atlantic, and in particular the spring bloom, have been studied extensively from a biogeographical perspective. "Spring bloom nutrient dynamics in the Oslofjord".  These variations occur due to fluctuations in environmental conditions, such as wind intensity, temperature, freshwater input, and light. We estimated the total primary production during the spring bloom in 2002 to range 27–35 g C m−2. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors.  Phosphorus can also be limiting, particularly in freshwater environments and tropical coastal regions.. The timing and intensity of spring. (2002) noted a reduction in spring bloom intensity and duration in years when winter water temperatures were warmer. The spring bloom dominates the annual cycle of phytoplankton abundance in large regions of the world oceans. "Long-term increase of phytoplankton biomass in Chesapeake Bay, 1950–94." Substantial shifts in the extent and thickness of sea ice have cascading effects on marine primary production and polar ecosystems. Limnology and Oceanography 4(4) 425-440, Durbin, A.G. and Durbin, E.G. Estuaries and Coasts 33: 448–470. environmental) factors. , Spring blooms typically last until late spring or early summer, at which time the bloom collapses due to nutrient depletion in the stratified water column and increased grazing pressure by zooplankton. The modelling experiment compared the results of a reference run in the presence of sea ice with those of a run in the absence of sea ice, … Now however autonomous underwater gliders can provide high-resolution sampling of the upper ocean over inter-seasonal timescales and advance our understanding of spring blooms. Like all plants, phytoplankton go through photosynthesis, so they need sunlight to live and grow. Marine Ecology Progress Series 219: 41–49, Smayda, T.J.(1957). This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 04:35. "Climate forcing of the spring bloom in Chesapeake Bay". Historically, blooms have been explained by Sverdrup's critical depth hypothesis, which says blooms are caused by shoaling of the mixed layer. The bloom probably peaked in late April, but break-up ofsea icemadeit impossibleto samplefrequently in this period. At this time seawater is often full of nutrients following the winter period and the weather becomes more calm. The blooms are triggered by spring stream runoff, but more importantly by the 24-hour periods of sunlight that occur each spring.  For instance, diatom growth rate becomes limited when the supply of silicate is depleted. The community structure of a phytoplankton bloom depends on the geographic location of the bloom … Major Spring Bloom Species. Marine Ecological Progress Series 157: 39–52. (2009). , Variability in the patterns (e.g., timing of onset, duration, magnitude, position, and spatial extent) of annual spring bloom events has been well documented. ‘In order that the vernal blooming of phytoplankton shall begin it is necessary that in the surface layer the production of organic matter by photosynthesis exceeds the destruction by respiration’, with these perhaps self-evident words, Sverdrup (1953)set in motion about 60 years of misunderstanding and misconception about the North Atlantic Spring Bloom, its initiation and its fate. Oceanogr., 37(2): 379–392, Miller, W.D.  Freshwater influences primary productivity in two ways. Rapid increases in phytoplankton growth, that typically occur during the spring bloom, arise because phytoplankton can reproduce rapidly under optimal growth conditions (i.e., high nutrient levels, ideal light and temperature, and minimal losses from grazing and vertical mixing). Results are consistent with critical depth hypothesis if mixing depth is considered.  The most limiting nutrient in the marine environment is typically nitrogen (N).  Ultraphytoplankton can sustain low, but constant stocks, in nutrient depleted environments because they have a larger surface area to volume ratio, which offers a much more effective rate of diffusion. ICES Journal of Marine Science 55: 562–573.  This creates a comparatively high nutrient and high light environment that allows rapid phytoplankton growth.. These maps show average chlorophyll concentration in May 2003–2010 (left) and November 2002–2009 (right) in the Pacific Ocean. Along with thermal stratification, spring blooms can be triggered by salinity stratification due to freshwater input, from sources such as high river runoff. Limnol.  Since silicate is not required by other phytoplankton, such as dinoflagellates, their growth rates continue to increase. As phytoplankton do not remain at the surface in this mix, they do not have ready access to sunlight, so blooms do not occur in the winter.
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